Drugs to treat COVID-19: how close are we?

Donald Trump has been in disagreement this week with top scientists by claiming that the anti-malarial drug chloroquine should be adopted immediately for treating patients with COVID-19, and even given as a prophylaxis. In this blog I will explore the challenges facing scientists working to develop drugs to treat COVID-19 and discuss recent advances, including chloroquine.

What are the challenges in designing anti-viral drugs? After all, there are a lot of antibiotics out there that work for a whole range of different bacterial infections. Let’s look at the structure of a bacterium, shown below.

Compared with a virus, the structure of a bacterium, shown below, is highly complex. Bacteria carry out a huge number of chemical reactions and process. They release energy through respiration; they make proteins; they replicate their DNA in order to reproduce. And that’s just for starters; there are many, many more processes going on. Viruses, by contrast, can’t do any of these things without infecting a cell and using its organelles.

Structure of a bacterium. There are many different processes which can be targeted by antibiotics.

With bacteria, inhibiting or blocking even one of these reactions or processes can be enough to kill it. All chemical reactions in living organisms are controlled by enzymes, which are a type of protein. Each protein controls one, specific reaction. Disable the enzyme, and you stop the reaction.

For example, penicillin works by disabling the enzyme that bacteria use to maintain and repair their cell walls. The cell wall disintegrates, and the bacterium dies. Baytril, an antibiotic widely used in veterinary medicine, interferes with the replication of DNA, meaning that the bacterium can’t reproduce.

So, why are viruses harder to fight? The answer lies in the fact that viruses are so simple, meaning there are far fewer reactions and processes for drugs to target. One virus that is treated very successfully with drugs is HIV. So, why can’t some of the drugs used to treat HIV be adapted to use against COVID-19? By virus standards, HIV is quite complex. It’s a type of virus called a retrovirus, which has a more complicated reproductive cycle than other viruses. To put it simply, most of the drugs used to treat HIV are blocking or inhibiting processes that just don’t happen in COVID-19. Two HIV drugs, lopinavir and ritonavir, have shown some promise in treating COVID-19.

The structure of a virus is much simpler than that of a bacterium.

One of the most promising potential treatments is a drug called favipiravir. It’s a drug being developed in Japan, specifically to treat RNA viruses, and COVID-19 is an RNA virus. Originally developed as a treatment for influenza, trials have been carried out in China on 340 patients who had tested positive for COVID-19. It was found that the drug significantly shortened the time taken for patients to test negative, and that respiratory symptoms and lung function improved as well.

Why then, is favipiravir not being adopted immediately? The answer is that it has only been licensed to treat influenza. This means that extensive clinical trials must take place before it can be licensed for COVID-19 to ensure that it is safe and effective.

What about chloroquine? Chloroquine is an old drug, it’s been used for over 80 years to treat malaria, which is a disease caused by a parasite carried by mosquitos. It has been known for a while that chloroquine has antiviral activity. It basically prevents viruses from sticking to the membranes of cells, meaning they cannot enter and infect them.

So far, the evidence supporting chloroquine is anecdotal – this means it does not meet the standard to be considered reliable. Some doctors in China and South Korea have given it to patients with COVID-19 and seen improvements; and in France, 24 patients were given a similar drug, hydroxycloroquine, and showed improvements.

Chloroquine shows promise in treating COVID-19, but a lot more research is needed.

These were small scale experiments and not carried out under the controlled conditions of a clinical trial. As a result though, 6 properly designed clinical trials are getting underway around the world to test whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine are safe and effective against COVID-19.

If either chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine do turn out to be effective, it would be a major breakthrough. Because both have been used for many years in treating malaria, they are already known to be safe. They are also safe to take during pregnancy; there are concerns that favipiravir may have adverse effects on a developing foetus. Both drugs are cheap, and facilities to manufacture them in large amounts are already up and running.

There are downsides. The side effects of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine are pretty unpleasant, mainly nausea and diarrhoea. In rare cases chloroquine can cause blindness. An important consideration too is their use in treating malaria. Drug resistance in malaria is a big concern to those involved in treating it.

The risk of malaria developing resistance to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine must be carefully evaluated.

There are already a number of strains of malaria that are resistant to both chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. The risk malaria resistance must be evaluated before using them to treat COVID-19 in places where malaria is active. For example, it’s now malaria season in southern Africa and malaria will be active until around the end of April. In India, malaria season begins in May.

In terms of drug development, there is a lot to be optimistic about. It may well be that an effective treatment is developed before a vaccine. Certainly, many scientists are now beginning to talk about a timescale of months, rather than years, for developing an effective treatment. I will keep you all up to date about advances as they occur, meanwhile, stay safe and well!

Why gargling with vinegar will NOT cure you of coronavirus!

Hot on the heels of panic buying, we are starting to see people posting about supposed ‘cures’ for COVID-19 that some mysterious ‘they’ are not telling us about for ‘their’ own sinister reasons. Folks, this is reality, not the X-Files (I know, showing my age). Seriously, I’ve seen the image below posted on Facebook by several people in the last 24 hours (minus the red X – that’s my addition!). In this post I am going to explain why it’s incorrect, and why anyone who shares or follows it is NOT saving someone, but is putting themselves and others at risk.

The reason this is incorrect lies in the way viruses reproduce. As explained in my earlier post, ‘What is a virus?’, viruses consist of a strand of genetic material (RNA in the case of COVID-19) inside a protective envelope. In order to reproduce, they have to get inside a cell, hijack its organelles, then destroy the cell membrane to release the new virus particles. The image below shows this. It’s for an influenza virus, but all viruses work the same way.

When you have a sore throat from COVID-19 (or any other virus), it’s because the virus is invading the epithelial cells that line the throat, and using them to reproduce. A combination of damage to the lining of the throat, and inflammation from your immune response, is what gives you a sore throat.

Gargling with warm water and salt/ vinegar may destroy some of the free virus particles, or wash them away. What it won’t do is affect cells infected with the virus. Any viruses that are already inside cells will be completely unaffected because they are protected by the cell membrane; they will be busy reproducing away like crazy. As soon as you stop gargling, viruses leaving infected cells will once again go on to affect other cells.

So why might gargling and drinking plenty of water make a sore throat feel better or even disappear? If the lining of the throat becomes dry, it makes the soreness worse, so drinking plenty of water will prevent drying out. Gargling warm salt water to soothe a sore throat is nothing new, it’s a tried and tested remedy. I can remember my granny making me do this during childhood bouts of tonsillitis and it really does help. You can also use bicarbonate of soda. So, hydration and gargling will soothe a sore throat, as will throat lozenges, or in fact any boiled sweet because they generate production of saliva.

Please though, take it from me, the advice in the picture at the top of the post will NOT cure you of COVID-19 infection. Posts like this are extremely dangerous for two reasons. First, they may make people think they are cured, so they are unprepared when more serious symptoms appear. But the biggest danger is someone might believe they are cured and go out and about, potentially spreading the virus.

The take-home message from this post is, if you want information about how to treat COVID-19, PLEASE get it from a reputable source. In the UK, your first port of call should be the NHS; there is plenty of advice available online. If you have a health condition, charities and support organisations have specific, up to date advice – personally, I check Asthma UK daily for updates. Whatever you do, DON’T follow advice from random, unaccredited sources on social media. And if you see something like the post I’ve been talking about here, please, PLEASE do not re-post or share it! If you’ve found this post useful though, please do share.

A footnote. Vinegar or salt water may not kill cells infected with the virus, but your immune system will. There are two types of white blood cell that do just that. Natural killer cells (NKCs) and killer T-cells. So alongside good hygiene, the best thing you can do to protect yourself is make sure that you are fit and well, so that your immune system is as strong as possible. Good diet, enough sleep and plenty of exercise are important in maintaining a strong immune system. Looking after your mental health is also vital, as there is a strong link between mental health and your immune system. In the list below there is a link to advice from Mind on taking care of your mental health which I can’t recommend enough, it has some fantastic advice 😀

Some good sources of reliable information:

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/

https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/coronavirus-and-your-wellbeing/ – This is a brilliant resource for anyone who has mental health issues; and excellent advice for taking care of your mental health generally.

https://www.diabetes.org.uk/about_us/news/coronavirus – Epecific advice for those with diabetes.

https://www.macmillan.org.uk/cancer-information-and-support/get-help/physical-help/cancer-and-coronavirus – A FAQ developed by a number of cancer charities for those living with cancer.

https://www.mariecurie.org.uk/help/support/coronavirus – Excellent advice from Marie Curie for those dealing with a terminal illness.

https://www.asthma.org.uk/advice/triggers/coronavirus-covid-19/ – Great advice for those with asthma.

https://www.ageuk.org.uk/information-advice/health-wellbeing/conditions-illnesses/coronavirus/ – Advice aimed at older people.